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D milk and cheese should be the main part of your diet. Definition Amino acids are joined in unique chain sequences to form specific proteins. C in the process of transamination. Term Lean body mass. Which of the following individuals is most likely to be in a negative nitrogen balance? This bulk helps move the food mass along, stimulates normal muscle action in the intestine, and forms feces for elimination of waste products. As muscle cells lack glucosephosphatase , which is required to pass glucose into the blood, the glycogen they store is available solely for internal use and is not shared with other cells.
Which of the following recommendations regarding daily requirements is correct? Antioxidant; binds bile acids, cholesterol, and metals. Definition One of the greatest factors affecting metabolism is the percent of lean body mass. Jesus is the reason for the season. Dietary intake of nutrients that meets the needs of almost all healthy individuals A. E you should only eat one or two servings of bread, cereal, rice, pasta per day.
B are the only nutrients required by the body. C cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body. D are needed to make food taste good. E are manufactured by the body. A food guide pyramid suggests that A you eat as many sweets as you want. B your diet should contain a variety of foods. C meats are the most important part of your diet. D milk and cheese should be the main part of your diet. E you should only eat one or two servings of bread, cereal, rice, pasta per day.
A kilocalorie kcal is a measure of the A protein content of food. B acidity of food. C fat content of food. D energy content of food. E heat content of food. Starches and sugars are examples of A carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates include A glucose and fructose.
B maltose and sucrose. C starch, glycogen, and cellulose. D cellulose and glucose. E glucose and lactose. Which of the following statements is true? A The primary role of carbohydrates is to serve as an energy source. B Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and amino acids. C Maltose is a complex carbohydrate. D Sucrose is the primary source of energy for most cells.
E Most carbohydrates come from animal products. Carbohydrates are absorbed into the blood stream as A disaccharides. The primary source of energy for most cells is A sucrose. The most common monosaccharides in the diet are A glucose and fructose. B galactose and fructose. C glucose and glycerol. D glycogen and glucose. E lactose and maltose. Which of the following organs can store glycogen?
A spleen and pancreas B kidney and adrenal gland C large and small intestines D liver and muscles E stomach and pancreas. Which of the following statements regarding cellulose is true? A Cellulose can be digested by human digestive enzymes.
B Cellulose provides fiber or "roughage. D Cellulose is one of the units of a sucrose molecule. E Cellulose is a source of energy. If your daily diet is deficient in carbohydrates, the result might be A obesity. B increased subcutaneous fat.
C decrease of muscle mass. E sensation of thirst. A compound composed of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule would be a A monoglyceride. If the fatty acid portion of a fat molecule has ten double covalent bonds, the fat is said to be A hydrogenated.
Olive and peanut oils are both A solid fats. Polyunsaturated vegetable oils can be changed from liquids to solids by A adding more unsaturated fatty acids to the molecules. B removing the glycerol portion of the molecules. C decreasing the number of double covalent bonds in their fatty acids. D removing hydrogens from the molecules. E none of the above. Phospholipids A are found in cell membranes. B are used as an energy source by cells.
C can be modified to form cholesterol. D are involved in the process of inflammation. E are found in organelle membranes. D starches and other complex polysaccharides. Cholesterol A must be obtained from plants.
B can be manufactured by most tissues. C is a hormone. D is necessary for blood clotting. E has no constructive function in the body.
A student's dietary intake includes grams of fat and a total of kilocalories. What percentage of the total kilocalories in this student's diet comes from fat?
Excess triglycerides are stored in adipose tissue. Adipose tissue functions A to assist the body in temperature homeostasis. B pads and protects. Which of the following is an essential fatty acid? A lecithin B linoleic acid C stearic acid D butyric acid E hydrochloric acid. Eicosanoids are involved in A inflammation. D smooth muscle contraction. An essential amino acid A can be formed from fats in the body.
B can be synthesized by the body if there is enough nitrogen. C must be made from glucose. D must be supplied in the diet. E can not be converted to nonessential amino acids. Proteins regulate the acid-base balance of the blood by A acting as buffers.
D binding sodium ions. E removing carbon dioxide from the blood. Which of the following recommendations regarding daily requirements is correct? B Carbohydrate intake should be around grams daily. C Protein consumption should be 0.
D Cholesterol intake should be about milligrams per day. A food that contains all nine essential amino acids is called a n A plasma protein. An example of an incomplete protein food is A eggs. D leafy green vegetables. Proteins that function in immunity include A enzymes.
Functions of proteins include A providing structural strength in connective tissue. B serving as a part of the cholesterol molecule. C serving as the primary energy source of cells. D transport of nitrogen gas in the blood. E padding and insulation. Water-soluble vitamins include A vitamin A. Which of the following individuals is most likely to be in a negative nitrogen balance? A a healthy pregnant woman B a year-old child C an adult woman with adequate protein intake D an elderly homeless man.
E a healthy adult man who exercises. Fat soluble vitamins can be toxic in large doses because they A do not dissolve in water. B can be stored and accumulate in body tissues. C are rapidly excreted. Term The three 3 double sugars composed of two single-sugar units linked together. Definition complex carbohydrates composed of many single-sugar units.
The important polysaccharides in nutrition include starch, glycogen, and dietary fiber. Definition the most significant polysaccharides in the diet. They are found in grains, legumes, and other vegetables, and some fruits in minute amounts. They break down more slowly due to their complex structure and supply energy over a longer period. Definition found in animal muscle tissue is similar in structure to starch. Rather, it is a carbohydrate formed within the body's tissues and is crucial to the body's metabolism and energy balance.
Glycogen is found in the liver and muscles, where it is constantly recycled broken down to form glucose for immediate energy needs and synthesized for storage in the liver and muscles. These small stores of glycogen help sustain normal bloody glucose during short-term fasting periods and provide immediate fuel for muscle action. Term Dietary Fiber polysaccharide.
Definition Because human beings lack the necessary enzymes to digest dietary fiber, these substances do not have a direct energy value like other carbohydrates. However, their inability to be digested makes these materials important dietary assets.
Term Dietary Fiber Classes. Definition Cellulose - the chief part of the framework of plants i. Holds water; reduces elevated colonic intraluminal pressure Lignin - the only noncarbohydrate type of dietary fiber, is a large compound that forms the woody part of certain plants. Term Fiber intake should be gradually increased. Definition Fiber intake should be gradually increased. Term Functions of Carbohydrates.
Definition Primary Energy Function - provide fuel for the body Special Tissue Functions - Glycogen reserves in the liver and muscle tissue provide a constant exchange with the body's overall energy balance system.
Term Digestion starts in the mouth. Definition the overall name for the chemical group of fats and fat related compounds.
All lipids are composed of the same basic chemical elements as carbohydrates: Definition Chemical name for fats in the body or in food; compound of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol base.
The main building blocks of triglycerides are fatty acids. Fatty acids can be classified by their length as short, medium, or long-chain fatty acids. Term Saturated Fatty Acid. Term Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Definition it is not completely filled with all the hydrogen it can hold. Term Essential Fatty Acids. Definition A nutrient is essential if either of the following is true: The only fatty acids known to be essential for complete human nutrition are the polyunsaturated fatty acids Omega-6 and Omega Definition It occurs naturally in animal foods however, no plant food contains cholesterol.
Cholesterol is vital to membranes and plays other important roles in human metabolism. The main food sources of cholesterol are egg yolks and organ meats, such as liver and kidney, as well as other meats. Role as Building Units. Definition Amino acids are joined in unique chain sequences to form specific proteins. Definition The word amino refers to compounds containing nitrogen.
Like carbohydrates and fats, proteins have a basic structure of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. As such, protein is the primary source of nitrogen in the diet. Term Classes of Amino Acids. The remaining nonnitrogen residue can be used to make carbohydrate or fat or reattached to make another amino acid if necessary. Definition The body's nitrogen balance indicates how well its tissues are being maintained.
The intake and use of dietary protein is measured by the amount of nitrogen intake in food protein and the amount of nitrogen excreted in the urine. For example, 1 g of urinary nitrogen results from the digestion and metabolism of 6. Term Positive Nitrogen Balance. Definition A positive nitrogen balance exists when the body takes in more nitrogen than it excretes, thus storing more nitrogen by building tissue than it is losing by breaking down tissue. This situation occurs normally during periods of rapid growth such as during infancy, childhood, adolescence, pregnancy, and lactation.
A positive nitrogen balance also occurs in individuals who have been ill or malnourished and are being "built back up" with increased nourishment.
Term Negative Nitrogen Balance. Definition A negative nitrogen balance occurs when the body takes in less nitrogen than it excretes. This means that the body has an inadequate protein intake and is losing nitrogen by breaking down more tissue than it is building up. This situation arises in states of malnutrition and illness. Term Functions of Protein. Definition Protein is the fundamental structural material of every cell in the body. Protein makes up the bulk of the muscles, internal organs, brain, nerves, skin, hair, and nails and also is a vital part of regulatory substances such as enzymes, hormones, and blood plasma.
Protein is central to the biochemical machinery tat makes cells work. In addition to its basic tissue building function, protein has other body functions relating to energy, water balance, metabolism, and the body's defense system.
Term Water and pH Balance. Definition Fluids within the body are divided into three compartments: The body compartments are separated with cell membranes that are not freely permeable to protein. Because water is attracted to protein, plasma proteins such as albumin help control water balance throughout the body by exerting osmotic pressure.
Term Metabolism and Transportation. Definition Protein aids metabolic functions through enzymes, transport agents, and hormones. Digestive and cell enzymes are protein that control metabolic process. Enzymes necessary for the digestion of carbohydrates amylase , fats lipase , and proteins proteases are all proteins in nature.
Proteins also act as the vehicle in which nutrients are carried throughout the body. Definition are necessary to transport fats in the water-soluble blood supply. Definition Hemoglobin, the vital oxygen carrier in the red blood cells, and transferrin, the iron transport protein in the blood. Hormones, such as insulin and glucagon, also are proteins that play a major function in the metabolism of glucose. Term Protein and the Immune System.
Definition Protein is used to build special white blood cells lymphocytes and antibodies as part of the body's immune system to help defend against disease and infection. These proteins are primarily of animal origin e. However, soybean and soy products are the exception.
Soy products are the only plant sources of complete proteins. These proteins generally are of plant origin e. Term Types of Vegetarian Diets. Term Digestion of Proteins - The Mouth. Definition After protein is eate, it must be changed in to the necessary, ready-to-use building units, amino acids.
This work is done through the successive parts of the GI tract by the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion. The mechanical breaking down of protein foods occurs by chewing in the mouth. The food particles are mixed with saliva and passed on to the stomach as a semisolid mass. Term Digestion of Proteins - Stomach. Definition Because proteins are such large, complex structures, a series of enzymes is necessary to break them down and produce individual amino acids the primary form for absorption.
Zymogens are then activated upon need. Enzymes needed for ptein digestion cannot be stored in an active form or the cells and organs made of structural proteins that produce and store them would be digested as well. Definition hydrochloric acid provides the acid medium necessary to convert pepsinogen to active pepsin ; the gastric enzyme specific to proteins.
Hydrochloric acid also begins the unfolding and denaturing of the complex protein chains. This unfolding makes the individual amino acids more available for enzymatic action. Pepsin completes the first stage of breakdown. Rennin and calcium act on the casein of milk to produce a curd. By coagulating milk into a more solid curd, rennin prevents the food from passing too rapidly from the infant's stomach to the small intestine.
Term Digestion of Proteins - Small Intestine. Definition Protein digestion begins in the acidic medium of the stomach and is completed in the alkaline medium of the small intestine. Enzymes from secretions of both the pancreas and intestine take part.
Term Pancreatic Secretions as related to Protein breakdown. Term Intestinal Secretions - in terms of protein breakdown. Definition Aminopeptidase - attacks the nitrogen-containing amino end of the peptide chain and releases amino acids one at a time, producing peptides and free amino acids.
Term Dietary Protein Quality. Definition Chemical Scor e CS: Term Illness or Disease in relation to protein. Definition An illness or disease, especially when accompanied by fever and increased tissue breakdown catabolism , increases the body's need for protein and kilocalories for rebuilding tissue and meeting the demands of an increased metabolic rate.
After surgery, extra protein is needed for wound healing. Needs are higher for infants, pregnant and breastfeeding women, and possibly vegans. Term Digestion - Basic Principles. Definition Body cells cannot use food as it is eaten. Preparing food for the body's use involves many steps including: The glucose is utilized for energy production. The excess glucose is stored in the liver as glycogen. When the body need energy or glucose level is depleted, then glycogen iwill be converted to glucose.
Glycogen is often called "animal starch". It is stored in the liver as a quick release power source, like a battery. When your glucose level drops, hormones are released which stimulate the conversion of glycogen back to glucose, i. Glycogen is polymer of glucose, similar to plant starches. Glucose is the human body's primary source of immediate energy. Want to build a free website? Related Questions How might your body sense when to convert glucose to glycogen and glycogen back to glucose?
How would your body know when to convert glucose to glycogen and vise versa?
Iamges: anabolic process of converting extra glucose into glycogen is called
Each villus has an ample supply of blood vessels to receive protein and carbohydrate materials as well as a special lymph vessel to receive fat materials Microvilli: Specific nerves regulate muscle action along the GI tract.
E Cellulose is a source of energy.
D A hydrogen ion concentration gradient is established. Watch the winning performance from Greek Callfd ! Which of the following will increase metabolic rate? The amount of glucose in the blood is preserved at the expense of glycogen reservoirs Fig. Fatty acids are catabolized in a process called A glycolysis. Z- E Trim C. Tren ace quad injection NADH transfer electrons to the electron-transport chain.
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