WIKISTERO.COM: WIKIPEDIA OF ANABOLIZING STEROIDS
The shape of the four rings of most steroids is illustrated carbon atoms in black, oxygens in red and hydrogens in grey. Repeated intramuscular injections of testosterone undecanoate for substitution therapy in hypogonadal men. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 14 March Androstanolone stanolone, dihydrotestosterone, DHT Androstanolone esters Bolazine capronate Drostanolone propionate dromostanolone propionate Epitiostanol Mepitiostane Mesterolone Metenolone acetate methenolone acetate Metenolone enanthate methenolone enanthate Stenbolone acetate Nortestosterone derivatives:
Anabolic steroids, like many other drugs , have generated much controversy. The New England Journal of Medicine. Import and export also carry similar penalties. Other purported side effects include the idea that anabolic steroids have caused many teenagers to commit suicide. Again, this came with identical penalties in case of purchase or sale. All pages needing factual verification Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from March Wikipedia pending changes protected pages Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages Articles needing expert attention from March All articles needing expert attention Pharmacology articles needing expert attention All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Articles to be expanded from March All articles to be expanded All articles lacking reliable references Articles lacking reliable references from July Articles lacking reliable references from March Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May Pages using div col without cols and colwidth parameters Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers. Bolandiol dipropionate Nandrolone esters e.
Some steroid hormones are anabolic steroids AAS. Since the discovery and synthesis of testosterone in the s, AAS have been used by physicians for many purposes, with varying degrees of success, including:. Certain anabolic steroids, such as testosterone, are used as drugs to help make muscles stronger. Such steroids are used to improve a person's performance, but they are sometimes overused and abused by athletes that depend on them. The rate of steroid abuse grew greatly in the early 21st century, all over the world.
Anabolic steroids can have very bad effects on the human body. They can cripple or kill. Some sports forbid them. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Examples of steroid hormones include estrogen , testosterone , progesterone , Vitamin D 3 or cholecalciferol. Retrieved from " https: Steroids can be classified based on their chemical composition. Examples of this classification include:.
The gonane steroid nucleus is the parent carbon tetracyclic hydrocarbon molecule with no alkyl sidechains.
Secosteroids Latin seco , "to cut" are a subclass of steroidal compounds resulting, biosynthetically or conceptually, from scission cleavage of parent steroid rings generally one of the four. Major secosteroid subclasses are defined by the steroid carbon atoms where this scission has taken place. For instance, the prototypical secosteroid cholecalciferol , vitamin D 3 shown , is in the 9,secosteroid subclass and derives from the cleavage of carbon atoms C-9 and C of the steroid B-ring; 5,6-secosteroids and 13,steroids are similar.
Norsteroids nor- , L. The former involves enzymic ring expansion-contraction reactions, and the latter is accomplished biomimetically or more frequently through ring closures of acyclic precursors with more or fewer ring atoms than the parent steroid framework. Combinations of these ring alterations are known in nature.
For instance, ewes who graze on corn lily ingest cyclopamine shown and veratramine , two of a sub-family of steroids where the C- and D-rings are contracted and expanded respectively via a biosynthetic migration of the original C atom. Ingestion of these C-nor-D-homosteroids results in birth defects in lambs: Steroids and their metabolites often function as signalling molecules the most notable examples are steroid hormones , and steroids and phospholipids are components of cell membranes.
Steroids such as cholesterol decrease membrane fluidity. However, they are not typically sources of energy; in mammals, they are normally metabolized and excreted. Steroids play critical roles in a number of disorders, including malignancies like prostate cancer , where steroid production inside and outside the tumour promotes cancer cell aggressiveness.
The hundreds of steroids found in animals, fungi, and plants are made from lanosterol in animals and fungi; see examples above or cycloartenol in plants. Lanosterol and cycloartenol derive from cyclization of the triterpenoid squalene. Steroid biosynthesis is an anabolic pathway which produces steroids from simple precursors. A unique biosynthetic pathway is followed in animals compared to many other organisms , making the pathway a common target for antibiotics and other anti-infection drugs.
Steroid metabolism in humans is also the target of cholesterol-lowering drugs, such as statins. In humans and other animals the biosynthesis of steroids follows the mevalonate pathway, which uses acetyl-CoA as building blocks for dimethylallyl pyrophosphate DMAPP and isopentenyl pyrophosphate IPP.
Modifications of lanosterol into other steroids are classified as steroidogenesis transformations. DMAPP and IPP donate isoprene units, which are assembled and modified to form terpenes and isoprenoids  a large class of lipids, which include the carotenoids and form the largest class of plant natural products. Lanosterol can then be converted into other steroids, such as cholesterol and ergosterol. Two classes of drugs target the mevalonate pathway: Steroidogenesis is the biological process by which steroids are generated from cholesterol and changed into other steroids.
The major classes of steroid hormones, as noted above with their prominent members and functions , are the Progestogen , Corticosteroids corticoids , Androgens , and Estrogens. In plants and bacteria, the non-mevalonate pathway uses pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate as substrates.
During diseases pathways otherwise not significant in healthy humans can become utilized. These reactions introduce oxygen into the steroid ring, allowing the cholesterol to be broken up by other enzymes into bile acids. Steroid isolation , depending on context, is the isolation of chemical matter required for chemical structure elucidation, derivitzation or degradation chemistry, biological testing, and other research needs generally milligrams to grams, but often more  or the isolation of "analytical quantities" of the substance of interest where the focus is on identifying and quantifying the substance for example, in biological tissue or fluid.
The amount isolated depends on the analytical method, but is generally less than one microgram. In both cases, the isolated substance is purified to chemical homogeneity; combined separation and analytical methods, such as LC-MS , are chosen to be "orthogonal"—achieving their separations based on distinct modes of interaction between substance and isolating matrix—to detect a single species in the pure sample. Structure determination refers to the methods to determine the chemical structure of an isolated pure steroid, using an evolving array of chemical and physical methods which have included NMR and small-molecule crystallography.
Microbial catabolism of phytosterol side chains yields C steroids, C steroids, and ketosteroids i. The semisynthesis of steroids often begins from precursors such as cholesterol ,  phytosterols ,  or sapogenins.
Some steroidal hormones are economically obtained only by total synthesis from petrochemicals e. A number of Nobel Prizes have been awarded for steroid research, including:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 14 March This article is about the family of polycyclic chemical compounds. For the drugs, also used as performance-enhancing substances, see Anabolic steroid. For the scientific journal, see Steroids journal. The shape of the four rings of most steroids is illustrated carbon atoms in black, oxygens in red and hydrogens in grey.
The apolar "slab" of hydrocarbon in the middle grey, black and the polar groups at opposing ends red are common features of natural steroids. This section needs attention from an expert in Pharmacology. The specific problem is: WikiProject Pharmacology may be able to help recruit an expert. This section needs expansion with: You can help by adding to it. Adrenal gland Batrachotoxin List of steroid abbreviations List of steroids Membrane steroid receptor Pheromone Reverse cholesterol transport Steroidogenesis inhibitor Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein Steroidogenic enzyme.
The nomenclature of steroids. Queen Mary University of London. Retrieved 10 May Steroid Chemistry at a Glance. The New England Journal of Medicine. Retrieved 20 June Rogozkin 14 June Metabolism of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.
The steroid structural base is a steran nucleus, a polycyclic C17 steran skeleton consisting of three condensed cyclohexane rings in nonlinear or phenanthrene junction A, B, and C , and a cyclopentane ring D. Genome Biology and Evolution. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Steroids Health and Medical Issues Today. Skeletal Modification in Revised Section F: Total synthesis of natural products: Natural toxins, coral communities, and symbiotic relationships".
The Science of Biology 9th ed. Archived from the original PDF on Annual Review of Biochemistry. Retrieved March 20, International Journal of Cancer. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research. International Historic Chemical Landmark. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.
Introduction of Oxygen at Carbon of Progesterone".
Iamges: anabolic steroids wiki
Some steroidal hormones are economically obtained only by total synthesis from petrochemicals e. O'Shea and colleagues at Oregon State University , confirmed the muscle building effects of anabolic steroids on athletes that followed a high protein diet. Anabolic steroids have been used by men and women in many different kinds of professional sports cricket , track and field , weightlifting , bodybuilding , shot put , cycling , baseball , wrestling , mixed martial arts , boxing , football , etc.
Retrieved from " https:
For the most part, these substances are smuggled, but may also be obtained through pharmacistsveterinariansand physicians. Blood pressure and rate pressure product response in males using anabolic steroids wiki anabolic-androgenic steroids AAS. Microbial catabolism of phytosterol side chains yields C steroids, C steroids, and ketosteroids i. For the drugs, also anabolic steroids wiki as performance-enhancing substances, see Anabolic steroid. Adverse effects of anabolic anavar 10mg wiki in athletes.
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