Oral Anabolic Steroids (Androgens) Side Effects and List of Names
Royal College of Physicians. For the most part, the best oral steroid choice for women is Winstrol, or stanozolol. Anabolic steroids have many side effects because testosterone, which they mimic, has many effects in the body. Oral anabolic steroids are not designed to be run solitarily on their own , and instead serve to act as supplementary compounds to a solid base cycle that should always include injectable compounds, of which an essentially required injectable being Testosterone for every single cycle. The development of muscle-building properties of testosterone was pursued in the s, in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Bloc countries such as East Germany, where steroid programs were used to enhance the performance of Olympic and other amateur weight lifters. Common side effects of anabolic steroids include: This is beneficial because the lactic acid is used in the form of glycogen in the
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Am J Public Health. Oral Steroid Benefits — For the most part, people stick to oral steroids when they want the convenience of simple dosing. What do men really want you to know about them? Retrieved from " https: The decision to run a cycle consisting of only a single anabolic steroid and no injectable compounds is most usually the very first decision of any beginner or prospective individual looking to begin anabolic steroid use. Two or more batches of rats are castrated and given no treatment and respectively some AAS of interest.
Before you can find the best oral steroid for muscle gain, you need to understand that different steroids provide very different gains. For example, you will find that some oral steroids will pack on the pounds in very short order, but much of these gains are nothing more than water retention.
Although it can help you make your way into a higher weight class in just a few weeks, these gains are often very difficult — if not impossible — to maintain.
Thus, if you want to discover the best oral steroid for muscle gain, you need to balance huge gains with quality gains. Oral steroids have unique benefits not provided by most of their injectable counterparts. The best oral steroids reach peak blood concentrations very quickly, providing a near-immediate effect. This is very useful for bodybuilders and athletes who want the benefits of injectable steroids, but who want to start reaping the benefits of enhanced protein synthesis, better metabolism, more strength, and improved endurance.
For this reason, many will use oral steroids at the start of a cycle for the first four weeks. This allows them to enjoy the benefits immediately while the injectable steroids built to peak concentration in their bodies.
The chart below shows some of the best oral steroids used for kick-starts along with some of their most synergistic stacks. Dianabol and Anadrol are the best oral steroid kickstarts for bulking, and Winstrol is the best option for speeding the effects of a cutting cycle. Many people are interested in learning more about the best oral steroid because they simply do not want the hassle of injections.
The debate over whether oral or injectable steroids provide the best benefits is divided, and for the most part, it depends on the individual compound. Dianabol is by far the most popular oral steroid on the market today. Many of the biggest names in bodybuilding and sports have used it with a great deal of success.
It can help pack on 30 pounds or more in a relatively short period, but there is a price. Dianabol is notorious for causing bloat, which means that most of the growth you see is water. A more frequent schedule may be desirable in order to maintain a more constant level of hormone in the system. In addition, because estered testosterone is dissolved in oil, intravenous injection has the potential to cause a dangerous embolism clot in the bloodstream.
Transdermal patches adhesive patches placed on the skin may also be used to deliver a steady dose through the skin and into the bloodstream. There is also the risk that an intimate partner or child may come in contact with the application site and inadvertently dose himself or herself; children and women are highly sensitive to testosterone and can suffer unintended masculinization and health effects, even from small doses.
Injection is the most common method used by individuals administering AAS for non-medical purposes. The traditional routes of administration do not have differential effects on the efficacy of the drug.
Studies indicate that the anabolic properties of AAS are relatively similar despite the differences in pharmacokinetic principles such as first-pass metabolism. However, the orally available forms of AAS may cause liver damage in high doses. Known possible side effects of AAS include: Depending on the length of drug abuse, there is a chance that the immune system can be damaged.
Most of these side-effects are dose-dependent, the most common being elevated blood pressure , especially in those with pre-existing hypertension. AAS have been shown to alter fasting blood sugar and glucose tolerance tests. A number of severe side effects can occur if adolescents use AAS.
For example, AAS may prematurely stop the lengthening of bones premature epiphyseal fusion through increased levels of estrogen metabolites , resulting in stunted growth. Other effects include, but are not limited to, accelerated bone maturation , increased frequency and duration of erections, and premature sexual development. AAS use in adolescence is also correlated with poorer attitudes related to health. Probably carcinogenic to humans. Other side-effects can include alterations in the structure of the heart , such as enlargement and thickening of the left ventricle , which impairs its contraction and relaxation , and therefore reducing ejected blood volume.
AAS use can cause harmful changes in cholesterol levels: AAS use in adolescents quickens bone maturation and may reduce adult height in high doses. There are also sex-specific side effects of AAS. Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estradiol , may arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase.
This side-effect is temporary; the size of the testicles usually returns to normal within a few weeks of discontinuing AAS use as normal production of sperm resumes. Female-specific side effects include increases in body hair , permanent deepening of the voice, enlarged clitoris , and temporary decreases in menstrual cycles.
Alteration of fertility and ovarian cysts can also occur in females. Kidney tests revealed that nine of the ten steroid users developed a condition called focal segmental glomerulosclerosis , a type of scarring within the kidneys. The kidney damage in the bodybuilders has similarities to that seen in morbidly obese patients, but appears to be even more severe. High doses of oral AAS compounds can cause liver damage. A review in CNS Drugs determined that "significant psychiatric symptoms including aggression and violence, mania , and less frequently psychosis and suicide have been associated with steroid abuse.
Long-term steroid abusers may develop symptoms of dependence and withdrawal on discontinuation of AAS". Recreational AAS use appears to be associated with a range of potentially prolonged psychiatric effects, including dependence syndromes, mood disorders , and progression to other forms of substance abuse, but the prevalence and severity of these various effects remains poorly understood.
Large-scale long-term studies of psychiatric effects on AAS users are not currently available. DSM-IV lists General diagnostic criteria for a personality disorder guideline that "The pattern must not be better accounted for as a manifestation of another mental disorder, or to the direct physiological effects of a substance e.
As a result, AAS users may get misdiagnosed by a psychiatrist not told about their habit. Affective disorders have long been recognised as a complication of AAS use. From the mids onward, the media reported " roid rage " as a side effect of AAS. A review determined that some, but not all, randomized controlled studies have found that AAS use correlates with hypomania and increased aggressiveness, but pointed out that attempts to determine whether AAS use triggers violent behavior have failed, primarily because of high rates of non-participation.
Compared with individuals that did not use steroids, young adult males that used AAS reported greater involvement in violent behaviors even after controlling for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use. The drug response was highly variable.
The mechanism of these variable reactions could not be explained by demographic, psychological, laboratory, or physiological measures. A study of two pairs of identical twins, in which one twin used AAS and the other did not, found that in both cases the steroid-using twin exhibited high levels of aggressiveness, hostility, anxiety, and paranoid ideation not found in the "control" twin. The relationship between AAS use and depression is inconclusive. There have been anecdotal reports of depression and suicide in teenage steroid users,  but little systematic evidence.
A review found that AAS may both relieve and cause depression, and that cessation or diminished use of AAS may also result in depression, but called for additional studies due to disparate data. The pharmacodynamics of AAS are unlike peptide hormones. However, as fat-soluble hormones, AAS are membrane-permeable and influence the nucleus of cells by direct action. The pharmacodynamic action of AAS begin when the exogenous hormone penetrates the membrane of the target cell and binds to an androgen receptor AR located in the cytoplasm of that cell.
From there, the compound hormone-receptor diffuses into the nucleus, where it either alters the expression of genes  or activates processes that send signals to other parts of the cell. The effect of AAS on muscle mass is caused in at least two ways: It has been hypothesized that this reduction in muscle breakdown may occur through AAS inhibiting the action of other steroid hormones called glucocorticoids that promote the breakdown of muscles. As their name suggests, AAS have two different, but overlapping, types of effects: Some examples of the anabolic effects of these hormones are increased protein synthesis from amino acids , increased appetite, increased bone remodeling and growth, and stimulation of bone marrow , which increases the production of red blood cells.
Through a number of mechanisms AAS stimulate the formation of muscle cells and hence cause an increase in the size of skeletal muscles , leading to increased strength.
The androgenic effects of AAS are numerous. Depending on the length of use, the side effects of the steroid can be irreversible. Processes affected include pubertal growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality especially in fetal development. Some examples of virilizing effects are growth of the clitoris in females and the penis in male children the adult penis size does not change due to steroids [ medical citation needed ] , increased vocal cord size, increased libido , suppression of natural sex hormones , and impaired production of sperm.
Men may develop an enlargement of breast tissue, known as gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and a reduced sperm count. Compounds with a high ratio of androgenic to an anabolic effects are the drug of choice in androgen-replacement therapy e. This disassociation is less marked in humans, where all AAS have significant androgenic effects. A commonly used protocol for determining the androgenic: The VP weight is an indicator of the androgenic effect, while the LA weight is an indicator of the anabolic effect.
Two or more batches of rats are castrated and given no treatment and respectively some AAS of interest. Animal studies also found that fat mass was reduced, but most studies in humans failed to elucidate significant fat mass decrements. The effects on lean body mass have been shown to be dose-dependent.
Both muscle hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibers have been observed. The hydration of lean mass remains unaffected by AAS use, although small increments of blood volume cannot be ruled out. The upper region of the body thorax, neck, shoulders, and upper arm seems to be more susceptible for AAS than other body regions because of predominance of ARs in the upper body. After drug withdrawal, the effects fade away slowly, but may persist for more than 6—12 weeks after cessation of AAS use.
Overall, the exercise where the most significant improvements were observed is the bench press. The measurement of the dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects among AAS is based largely on a simple although arguably unsophisticated and outdated model involving rat tissue bioassays.
The intracellular metabolism theory explains how and why remarkable dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects can occur despite the fact that these effects are mediated through the same signaling receptor, and of course why dissociation is invariably incomplete. An animal study found that two different kinds of androgen response elements could differentially respond to testosterone and DHT upon activation of the AR.
Changes in endogenous testosterone levels may also contribute to differences in myotrophic—androgenic ratio between testosterone and synthetic AAS. Testosterone can be metabolized by aromatase into estradiol , and many other AAS can be metabolized into their corresponding estrogenic metabolites as well. The major effect of estrogenicity is gynecomastia woman-like breasts. AAS are androstane or estrane steroids. As well as others such as 1-dehydrogenation e.
The most commonly employed human physiological specimen for detecting AAS usage is urine, although both blood and hair have been investigated for this purpose. The AAS, whether of endogenous or exogenous origin, are subject to extensive hepatic biotransformation by a variety of enzymatic pathways. The primary urinary metabolites may be detectable for up to 30 days after the last use, depending on the specific agent, dose and route of administration. A number of the drugs have common metabolic pathways, and their excretion profiles may overlap those of the endogenous steroids, making interpretation of testing results a very significant challenge to the analytical chemist.
Methods for detection of the substances or their excretion products in urine specimens usually involve gas chromatography—mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The use of gonadal steroids pre-dates their identification and isolation. Medical use of testicle extract began in the late 19th century while its effects on strength were still being studied.
In the s, it was already known that the testes contain a more powerful androgen than androstenone , and three groups of scientists, funded by competing pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland, raced to isolate it. The chemical synthesis of testosterone was achieved in August that year, when Butenandt and G.
Wettstein, announced a patent application in a paper "On the Artificial Preparation of the Testicular Hormone Testosterone Androstenoneol. Clinical trials on humans, involving either oral doses of methyltestosterone or injections of testosterone propionate , began as early as Kennedy was administered steroids both before and during his presidency.
The development of muscle-building properties of testosterone was pursued in the s, in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Bloc countries such as East Germany, where steroid programs were used to enhance the performance of Olympic and other amateur weight lifters.
This data suggests that the impact of cholesterol alterations by injectable Testosterone is not extremely prominent, and that the ceiling for how much of a negative change in HDL will occur seems to be very low. It is very evident that the negative impact on cholesterol by oral steroids is significant enough to warrant concern.
As a result of the prominent issues of hepatotoxicity and negative cholesterol changes, it would then be a very smart decision and is in fact advised even among the medical establishment in prescription guidelines for the use of oral steroids to run oral steroids for periods no greater than 6 — 8 weeks at any given time in a cycle.
This is to ensure healthy liver function, and for proper liver recovery following the cycle. Various oral steroids that are known to exhibit more liver toxicity than others are advised to be used in the range of 4 — 6 weeks, while others can be utilized in the range of 6 — 8 weeks and some perhaps slightly longer 10 weeks maximum. Due diligence must always be undertaken when using oral anabolic steroids in terms of proper liver function and liver health. It is because of the risk of hepatotoxicity that the main function of oral steroids in any cycle is to primarily serve as a supplementary compound to a solid base of injectable compounds or as a supportive kickstarting compound.
No oral steroid should ever be run solitarily on its own. Testosterone in some form no lower than a TRT Testosterone Replacement Therapy dose should always be run with an oral steroid. It is imperative that all individuals especially beginners must understand the following very important guideline where anabolic steroid use is concerned:. Absolutely no cycle should ever consist of only oral anabolic steroids under any circumstances.
The decision to run a cycle consisting of only a single anabolic steroid and no injectable compounds is most usually the very first decision of any beginner or prospective individual looking to begin anabolic steroid use. This is usually the result of a fear of needles, but this must be overcome, and once overcome it becomes much easier afterwards. Oral anabolic steroids are not designed to be run solitarily on their own , and instead serve to act as supplementary compounds to a solid base cycle that should always include injectable compounds, of which an essentially required injectable being Testosterone for every single cycle.
Injectable compounds are the base compounds of any cycle. For individuals insistent and adamant on engaging in an oral-only cycle, a few examples will be provided very shortly, towards the end of this article. This is a technique whereby the user will include an oral anabolic steroid in a cycle for the first several weeks this is usually done in tandem with a long-estered injectable anabolic steroid due to the longer kick-in period.
Because the kick-in period for most injectables especially long esters is a matter of a few weeks into a cycle, one usually will not experience the positive effects until such time. The oral anabolic steroid utilized during these first few weeks will enable the user to experience the positive anabolic effects of the oral while the effects of the injectable compound slowly increase. Dianabol is one such anabolic steroid that is commonly utilized to this effect as a kickstarting compound due to its considerable anabolic strength.
Oral Steroid Cycle Example 1 Weeks 1 — Oral Steroid Cycle Example 2 Weeks Oral Steroid Cycle Example 3 high-dose short-term advanced level cycle of 4 weeks Weeks 1 — 4: As previously stated, the idea of running a cycle that consists of only oral steroids is, simply put, a bad idea. Without any form of exogenous Testosterone, the body will be incapable of maintaining its normal physiological functions that are normally governed by Testosterone.
Other anabolic steroid analogues and derivatives such as oral steroids might perhaps be several times as anabolic as Testosterone, but those are all the benefits most of these compounds possess.
For example, Dianabol is a very strong oral steroid with fairly low androgenic effects and very strong anabolic effects — however, it is not a proper androgen for normal bodily function.
The human body and endocrine system are not as simplified as many individuals make it out to be when trivializing an oral steroid only cycle. Testosterone is vital for proper libido function, it is a regulator of cognitive and physical energy, it regulates the population of thromboxane A2 receptors on megakaryocytes and platelets, and hence platelet aggregation in humans, and it is essential for proper mental and psychological function, and a plethora of other essential functions — so many in fact that a completely separate article could be composed on such a subject and discussed to no end.
Many anabolic steroids do nothing in many of those physiological functions that Testosterone is responsible for regulating and governing. Many other anabolic steroid analogues can also serve to in fact mitigate those functions.
The importance of Testosterone notwithstanding, oral-only cycles are extremely limited in the manner by which they can be run. They must be halted earlier than a normal cycle due to the issues of hepatotoxicity, and only one compound at any one given time can be run.
The compounding of two or more oral anabolic steroids is a surefire way of dooming the liver to a highly toxic and very unhealthy environment. No more than one oral steroid should be stacked at any one given time, even within properly structured anabolic steroid cycles. Because of the limitations in oral-only cycles, no individual can ever possibly expect the proper physique changes and gains that could be accomplished with a properly structured anabolic steroid cycle.
Oral-only Steroid Cycle Example 1 Weeks 1 — 8: Oral-only Steroid Cycle Example 2 Weeks 1 — 8: Oral-only Steroid Cycle Example 3 Weeks 1 — 6: Oral-only Steroid Cycle Example 4 Weeks 1 — 8:
Iamges: oral anabolic steroid
The use of gonadal steroids pre-dates their identification and isolation.
Royal College of Physicians.
Use of performance-enhancing drugs stefoid sport. The act was amended by the Anabolic Steroid Control Act oforal anabolic steroid added prohormones to the list of controlled substanceswith effect from January 20, For individuals insistent and adamant on engaging in an oral-only cycle, a few examples will be provided oral anabolic steroid shortly, towards masteron propionate kuur end of this article. Regulation of the secretion of GnRH, FSH, and LH occurs partially by the negative feedback of testosterone and estradiol at the level of the hypothalamo-pituitary. Oral-only Steroid Cycle Example 1 Weeks ajabolic — 8: Estrogenic side effects — Some orals, such as Dianabol, will aromatize in the male body.
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