DrugFacts: Anabolic Steroids | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)

Anabolic Steroid Forums

statistics anabolic steroids

Discussion of anabolic steroids; brands, cycles, what works, etc. Many bodybuilders say that injections of anabolic steroids help them recover faster and train harder. In addition, because estered testosterone is dissolved in oil, intravenous injection has the potential to cause a dangerous embolism clot in the bloodstream. Pharmacology Application in Athletic Training. Changes in endogenous testosterone levels may also contribute to differences in myotrophic—androgenic ratio between testosterone and synthetic AAS. A quick review of high school science reminds us that physiology, in short, is the branch of biology that deals with the functions and activities of living organisms.

Are Anabolic Steroids Prohibited in Sports?

The risk of triceps tendon rupture, a relatively uncommon injury, is increased with AAS use 9. Even before the discovery and isolation of Testosterone, Adolf Butenandt had isolated Androstenone from urine samples. Don't Try This at Home Log. AAS are frequently produced in pharmaceutical laboratories, but, in nations where stricter laws are present, they are also produced in small home-made underground laboratories, usually from raw substances imported from abroad. Annals of Internal Medicine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. They drugs are also used for promoting muscle deposition after surgery, radiation therapy, burns, and aging-related sarcopenia muscle wasting.

Studies indicate that the anabolic properties of AAS are relatively similar despite the differences in pharmacokinetic principles such as first-pass metabolism. However, the orally available forms of AAS may cause liver damage in high doses. Known possible side effects of AAS include: Depending on the length of drug abuse, there is a chance that the immune system can be damaged. Most of these side-effects are dose-dependent, the most common being elevated blood pressure , especially in those with pre-existing hypertension.

AAS have been shown to alter fasting blood sugar and glucose tolerance tests. A number of severe side effects can occur if adolescents use AAS. For example, AAS may prematurely stop the lengthening of bones premature epiphyseal fusion through increased levels of estrogen metabolites , resulting in stunted growth.

Other effects include, but are not limited to, accelerated bone maturation , increased frequency and duration of erections, and premature sexual development. AAS use in adolescence is also correlated with poorer attitudes related to health. Probably carcinogenic to humans. Other side-effects can include alterations in the structure of the heart , such as enlargement and thickening of the left ventricle , which impairs its contraction and relaxation , and therefore reducing ejected blood volume.

AAS use can cause harmful changes in cholesterol levels: AAS use in adolescents quickens bone maturation and may reduce adult height in high doses. There are also sex-specific side effects of AAS. Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estradiol , may arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase.

This side-effect is temporary; the size of the testicles usually returns to normal within a few weeks of discontinuing AAS use as normal production of sperm resumes. Female-specific side effects include increases in body hair , permanent deepening of the voice, enlarged clitoris , and temporary decreases in menstrual cycles.

Alteration of fertility and ovarian cysts can also occur in females. Kidney tests revealed that nine of the ten steroid users developed a condition called focal segmental glomerulosclerosis , a type of scarring within the kidneys. The kidney damage in the bodybuilders has similarities to that seen in morbidly obese patients, but appears to be even more severe.

High doses of oral AAS compounds can cause liver damage. A review in CNS Drugs determined that "significant psychiatric symptoms including aggression and violence, mania , and less frequently psychosis and suicide have been associated with steroid abuse. Long-term steroid abusers may develop symptoms of dependence and withdrawal on discontinuation of AAS". Recreational AAS use appears to be associated with a range of potentially prolonged psychiatric effects, including dependence syndromes, mood disorders , and progression to other forms of substance abuse, but the prevalence and severity of these various effects remains poorly understood.

Large-scale long-term studies of psychiatric effects on AAS users are not currently available. DSM-IV lists General diagnostic criteria for a personality disorder guideline that "The pattern must not be better accounted for as a manifestation of another mental disorder, or to the direct physiological effects of a substance e.

As a result, AAS users may get misdiagnosed by a psychiatrist not told about their habit. Affective disorders have long been recognised as a complication of AAS use. From the mids onward, the media reported " roid rage " as a side effect of AAS.

A review determined that some, but not all, randomized controlled studies have found that AAS use correlates with hypomania and increased aggressiveness, but pointed out that attempts to determine whether AAS use triggers violent behavior have failed, primarily because of high rates of non-participation. Compared with individuals that did not use steroids, young adult males that used AAS reported greater involvement in violent behaviors even after controlling for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use.

The drug response was highly variable. The mechanism of these variable reactions could not be explained by demographic, psychological, laboratory, or physiological measures. A study of two pairs of identical twins, in which one twin used AAS and the other did not, found that in both cases the steroid-using twin exhibited high levels of aggressiveness, hostility, anxiety, and paranoid ideation not found in the "control" twin.

The relationship between AAS use and depression is inconclusive. There have been anecdotal reports of depression and suicide in teenage steroid users, [] but little systematic evidence.

A review found that AAS may both relieve and cause depression, and that cessation or diminished use of AAS may also result in depression, but called for additional studies due to disparate data.

The pharmacodynamics of AAS are unlike peptide hormones. However, as fat-soluble hormones, AAS are membrane-permeable and influence the nucleus of cells by direct action. The pharmacodynamic action of AAS begin when the exogenous hormone penetrates the membrane of the target cell and binds to an androgen receptor AR located in the cytoplasm of that cell. From there, the compound hormone-receptor diffuses into the nucleus, where it either alters the expression of genes [] or activates processes that send signals to other parts of the cell.

The effect of AAS on muscle mass is caused in at least two ways: It has been hypothesized that this reduction in muscle breakdown may occur through AAS inhibiting the action of other steroid hormones called glucocorticoids that promote the breakdown of muscles. As their name suggests, AAS have two different, but overlapping, types of effects: Some examples of the anabolic effects of these hormones are increased protein synthesis from amino acids , increased appetite, increased bone remodeling and growth, and stimulation of bone marrow , which increases the production of red blood cells.

Through a number of mechanisms AAS stimulate the formation of muscle cells and hence cause an increase in the size of skeletal muscles , leading to increased strength. The androgenic effects of AAS are numerous. Depending on the length of use, the side effects of the steroid can be irreversible.

Processes affected include pubertal growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality especially in fetal development. Some examples of virilizing effects are growth of the clitoris in females and the penis in male children the adult penis size does not change due to steroids [ medical citation needed ] , increased vocal cord size, increased libido , suppression of natural sex hormones , and impaired production of sperm.

Men may develop an enlargement of breast tissue, known as gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and a reduced sperm count. Compounds with a high ratio of androgenic to an anabolic effects are the drug of choice in androgen-replacement therapy e.

This disassociation is less marked in humans, where all AAS have significant androgenic effects. A commonly used protocol for determining the androgenic: The VP weight is an indicator of the androgenic effect, while the LA weight is an indicator of the anabolic effect.

Two or more batches of rats are castrated and given no treatment and respectively some AAS of interest. Animal studies also found that fat mass was reduced, but most studies in humans failed to elucidate significant fat mass decrements.

The effects on lean body mass have been shown to be dose-dependent. Both muscle hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibers have been observed.

The hydration of lean mass remains unaffected by AAS use, although small increments of blood volume cannot be ruled out. The upper region of the body thorax, neck, shoulders, and upper arm seems to be more susceptible for AAS than other body regions because of predominance of ARs in the upper body.

After drug withdrawal, the effects fade away slowly, but may persist for more than 6—12 weeks after cessation of AAS use. Overall, the exercise where the most significant improvements were observed is the bench press.

The measurement of the dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects among AAS is based largely on a simple although arguably unsophisticated and outdated model involving rat tissue bioassays.

The intracellular metabolism theory explains how and why remarkable dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects can occur despite the fact that these effects are mediated through the same signaling receptor, and of course why dissociation is invariably incomplete. An animal study found that two different kinds of androgen response elements could differentially respond to testosterone and DHT upon activation of the AR. Changes in endogenous testosterone levels may also contribute to differences in myotrophic—androgenic ratio between testosterone and synthetic AAS.

Testosterone can be metabolized by aromatase into estradiol , and many other AAS can be metabolized into their corresponding estrogenic metabolites as well. The major effect of estrogenicity is gynecomastia woman-like breasts.

AAS are androstane or estrane steroids. As well as others such as 1-dehydrogenation e. The most commonly employed human physiological specimen for detecting AAS usage is urine, although both blood and hair have been investigated for this purpose. The AAS, whether of endogenous or exogenous origin, are subject to extensive hepatic biotransformation by a variety of enzymatic pathways. The primary urinary metabolites may be detectable for up to 30 days after the last use, depending on the specific agent, dose and route of administration.

A number of the drugs have common metabolic pathways, and their excretion profiles may overlap those of the endogenous steroids, making interpretation of testing results a very significant challenge to the analytical chemist. Methods for detection of the substances or their excretion products in urine specimens usually involve gas chromatography—mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

The use of gonadal steroids pre-dates their identification and isolation. Medical use of testicle extract began in the late 19th century while its effects on strength were still being studied. In the s, it was already known that the testes contain a more powerful androgen than androstenone , and three groups of scientists, funded by competing pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland, raced to isolate it.

The chemical synthesis of testosterone was achieved in August that year, when Butenandt and G. Wettstein, announced a patent application in a paper "On the Artificial Preparation of the Testicular Hormone Testosterone Androstenoneol. Clinical trials on humans, involving either oral doses of methyltestosterone or injections of testosterone propionate , began as early as Kennedy was administered steroids both before and during his presidency.

The development of muscle-building properties of testosterone was pursued in the s, in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Bloc countries such as East Germany, where steroid programs were used to enhance the performance of Olympic and other amateur weight lifters.

In response to the success of Russian weightlifters, the U. The new steroid was approved for use in the U. It was most commonly administered to burn victims and the elderly.

The drug's off-label users were mostly bodybuilders and weight lifters. Although Ziegler prescribed only small doses to athletes, he soon discovered that those having abused Dianabol suffered from enlarged prostates and atrophied testes. Three major ideas governed modifications of testosterone into a multitude of AAS: Mar 23rd, blahabla. Mar 23rd, TheDerg. Mar 23rd, shimmer Mar 23rd, Moohseen Mar 22nd, Timtom. Mar 22nd, Mustlemaniac.

Mar 22nd, Izaac Mar 21st, sungdeaj. Many steroid abusers continue to inject themselves with anabolic steroids even when they start suffering from physical problems and their social relations start getting affected. Such individuals will also spend a disproportionate amount of money and time, trying to procure the drugs. This indicates that there exists an addiction. Gary Wadler, from the New York University School of Medicine, says that when a dependency becomes extreme, it is called an addiction and an addiction can either be psychological or physical.

Most people who inject themselves with anabolic steroids, do so to enhance their performance. They do not accept that anabolic steroids can be addictive. The thing is, unlike in the case of other abused drugs, individuals who take anabolic steroids do not do it to get high, but rather they want to increase their athletic performance and muscle mass.

This is a complex motivation and therefore it is difficult to determine the addictive properties of anabolic steroids. Research conducted at the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California on hamsters found that hamsters exposed to anabolic compounds showed addictive behavior in time.

Individuals who stop injecting themselves with anabolic steroids may see withdrawal symptoms like fatigue, reduction in sex drive, mood swings, appetite loss, restlessness, insomnia, and increased craving for steroids. Depression is the most dangerous symptom because severely depressed individuals may even attempt suicide.

Some of these symptoms will not go away even a year or more later, when the individual has stopped taking the drugs. When individuals stop injecting themselves with anabolic steroids , for example when they are 'cycling', their muscle gain may drop.

When this happens, some will feel depressed. Bodybuilders who use anabolic steroids often 'cycle' them, which means that they inject themselves with multiple doses over a period time, stop for some time, and then start over again. The period when they are not taking anabolic steroids is called an 'off-cycle'.

There are many reasons why anabolic steroids should not be taken for long periods. When an individual takes external substances like anabolic steroids, which affect the normal homeostatic levels of the body, the body responds by reducing the volume of the substance it produces, to reestablish the level that it is accustomed to. That is why the off-cycle period is necessary, so that the natural process can begin again and the organs are given some break.

For some time during the off-cycle period, the level of testosterone in the body will be very low. Depression is one of the symptoms of low testosterone level. So it is natural to feel depressed for some time when a person quits taking anabolic steroids. In this way, anabolic steroids produce psychological addiction. Some people combat this with post cycle therapy or PCT.

Some people are not sure if they want to use injectable anabolic steroids or take them orally. Here are some pros and cons of each method. Individuals, who desire to get quick results, often prefer to take oral steroids. When oral steroids are injected, they are quickly metabolized, after which they enter the bloodstream and begin to show anabolic effects.

Anabolic steroids that are taken orally do not have ester chains. Anabolic steroid that have ester chains first have to be processed by the liver before they become active. Their half lives are also shorter and therefore the system flushes them out faster. That is why many athletes take oral steroids. But they also have many drawbacks. For example, they leave many side effects. When they are injected, they have to first cross the digestive system and later the liver, before they can enter the blood and produce effects.

Passing the digestive system is no small trick and a lot of the steroid is destroyed. So, a large amount has to be taken so that a sufficient amount is left later to cause an effect. The liver is a vital organ and a storehouse of important nutrients. Excessive intake of oral steroids may affect the performance of the liver.

The liver will try to remove these substances from the body. When the load increases, a lot of stress builds up on the liver. There can even be liver damage if the use of oral steroids is sustained for a long time.

A large number of tablets may have to be injected at one time, which can affect their uptake. Certain compounds are also added to oral steroids to increase their bioavailibility. Without this alteration, oral anabolic steroids may not pass metabolism, which can leave them unable to exert effect. These compounds may also damage the liver. Athletes and body builders usually prefer steroid injections over the tablets. The health risk they pose is lesser. They do not have the chemical modifications of oral tablets.

Instead, they possess esters which give them long-lasting effects. Bodybuilders, who have prolonged cycles, use steroid injections. Their half life is longer than that of oral steroids. This is the reason why athletes who take steroid injections are more likely to be caught by drug screening tests because of the longer clearance time. Some people bypass this problem by taking steroid injections early in the cycle and then switching to oral steroids, when their steroid cycle is ending and drug tests are going to be conducted.

Another disadvantage of injecting steroids is the pain. But there are many ways to minimize the pain. Some injection sites, like the glutes, have a lower number of nerve endings than say, the shoulders or legs. Some people may be tempted to inject the steroids into the lower part of the buttocks, reasoning that the area is very soft and can easily be penetrated.

But note that the sciatic nerve passes near this area and if you puncture it, it can cause a lot of pain. One of the best areas to inject is the upper quadrant of the buttocks, near the waist.

But be careful so that you do not hit the pelvic bone. Feel the muscle and then inject. If you are injecting an oil based anabolic steroid, try holding the filled syringe under hot water. The viscosity of the oil will increase, which will enable it to transit smoothly into the muscle.

If you are still afraid of the pain, you can desensitize the area with an ice cube. You can also slap the area which will numb it, loosening the muscle. The best way to inject anabolic steroids is to do it intramuscularly. Intravenous injections should be strictly avoided. There are nine muscle groups and their corresponding sites, where anabolic steroids may be injected. The nine groups of muscles are glutes, biceps, lats, deltoids, triceps, quadriceps, pectorals, calves, and traps.

There are 17 injection sites, but because the muscles mentioned here have corresponding muscles on the other side of the body, so in total these steroids can be injected in 34 sites. Here is more about the muscles and injection sites. Select a spot, two inches under the lower back and a few inches to the left if you want to inject into the left glute. The spot is the same for the right glute also. Never inject into the buttocks directly, because you may injure the sciatic nerve. The center of the biceps, either on the inside or the outside, is a good place to inject.

There is only one spot on each of the lats. Find the outer edge of the muscle and inject into its center. While there are three sites on the deltoids, the most suitable one is the lateral deltoid head. There are three sites on the triceps — the outer head, the lower rear head, and the middle rear head.

You can inject into the center of each area. There are two sites on the quadriceps. The sweep is the best area to inject. Choose an area between the middle of the knee and the hip, a little to the outside, and inject. There are three points in the pectorals — the upper inside, the middle inside, and the outer lower.

All three areas are suitable, though the outer lower may be a little uncomfortable. You can inject into the center of the outer or inner head. Most people are not comfortable injecting into this site.

Only inject here if it is absolutely necessary. Of all these points, the glutes and the lateral head of the deltoids are the most suitable points. It is not recommended to inject anabolic steroids into the traps and the calves, because it can be painful. Whichever area you choose to inject, maintain sanitation. Never re-use syringes or needles and never share it with others.

Before you inject, sterilize the area with alcohol. Before injecting an anabolic steroid into your body, there are many things to consider. You should have proper knowledge or proper supplies and maintain proper sterility.

When you ignore the procedure or do not prepare adequately, it can lead to inflammation, infections, abscesses, scar tissue development, muscle damage, nerve damage, and even fatality.

Iamges: statistics anabolic steroids

statistics anabolic steroids

Large-scale long-term studies of psychiatric effects on AAS users are not currently available.

statistics anabolic steroids

Medicine and science in sports and exercise. Extreme mood swings can also occur, including "roid rage"—angry feelings and behavior that may lead to violence.

statistics anabolic steroids

The viscosity of the oil will increase, which will enable it to transit smoothly into the statistics anabolic steroids. Most people who inject themselves with anabolic steroids, tren ace quad injection so to enhance their performance. Similarly, Testosterone Statistics anabolic steroids when compared to other AAS tends to have less of an effect on lipid profiles. Oral- Turinabola testosterone derivative was used extensively to improve muscle mass and cut down recovery time. However, when one revisits the history of steroids, it becomes evident that researchers and scientists went through many difficulties to understand the key role played by testosterone and other androgenic hormones.