Drugs as Medicine AND Drug Use Risks AND Choosing a Drug-Free Life
Pathological Findings and Structure—Activity Relationships". Marijuana has many side effects, such as feelings of general relaxation, distorted time-sense, short-term memory loss, and increased appetite. Having a drug-addicted spouse often involves which of the following? The documents stated that 75 wrestlers—roughly 40 percent—had tested positive for drug use since , most commonly for steroids. Protective Effects of Tea on Human Health. T Choose the correct cycle of addiction.
Athletes take it to improve muscle mass and performance. It has been hypothesized that this reduction in muscle breakdown may occur through AAS inhibiting the action of other steroid hormones called glucocorticoids that promote the breakdown of muscles. Pharmacy and Pharmacology portal. British Journal of Pharmacology. The liver , for example, can grow tumors and develop cancer. Although Ziegler prescribed only small doses to athletes, he soon discovered that those having abused Dianabol suffered from enlarged prostates and atrophied testes. Gallaway S January 15,
Why does low self-esteem intensify the impact of the various influences on teen decision making? Teens with high levels of self-esteem are confident and self-assured, so when they face a tough decision such as whether to use illegal drugs, this self-assurance allows them to make decisions independently.
Teens with low self-esteem are not confident and often doubt themselves and their decision making. When teens with low self-esteem need to make tough decisions, they will look to outside influence to guide, suggest, or validate their decisions. Briefly explain why drug abusers are a high suicide risk. Drug users are at risk for suicide because most drugs are a depressant and amplify negative emotions.
The depressing effects of these drugs often lead to poor judgment and depression. Once an addiction is formed, loss of control over the amount of drug consumed can lead to further despair. When attempting to withdraw from the drug, the side effects can also be too overwhelming for the drug user to tolerate. Any substance that causes a change in a person's physical or psychological state.
Medicine A drug that is used to prevent disease, fight pathogens, relieve pain and promote health. Anaigesic A drug that relieves pain. Side Effect Any effect of a drug that is different from the intended effect.
Tolerance A state that develops when the body becomes used to the effects of a medicine; requires larger doses of the medicine to produce the same effect. Withdrawal The physical symptoms that occurs when a person stops using a medicine upon which they have become chemically dependent.
Prescription medicine Medicine that is FDA approved; can be purchased at the pharmacy if you have a prescription from a doctor. What does it mean when you develop a tolerance for a medication? The effectiveness of the medicine decreases over time. Describe four types of packaging that prevent tampering with medicine. A sample response follows: Antitampering packaging is designed to clearly indicate that a medication has been previously opened.
Some of the packaging includes foil wrappers, plastic seals, sealed packages, and individually wrapped medication. What are the major responsibilities of the FDA related to medicine? In general, the FDA is responsible for the regulation of all aspects of medicine in the United States. This includes medicine approval, manufacturing regulation, packaging regulation, control of distribution, and regulation of the place of sale. What information is required to be displayed on the labels of OTC medication?
The labels of OTC medicines include important information about when to take the drug, possible side effects, dosage, and intended uses. T Which of these is a significant risk with prolonged use of OTC medications? OTC medications can mask more serious health problems. Explain why it is a bad idea to take a friend's prescription medication. Taking someone else's medications is against the law. In addition, prescription medicines were given to your friend by a doctor who clearly understood the health issues at hand.
Those same medicines can cause harm to other individuals. Compare and contrast vaccines and antitoxins. Vaccines contain weakened or dead pathogens of the disease they are trying to prevent. These pathogens build up the body's resistance to the regular disease. Antitoxins are composed of body fluid extracts that bolster the body's ability to fight a specific disease.
In general, antitoxins work more quickly than vaccines. Which of the following is the legal method for obtaining prescription medicines? F Antibiotics kill harmful bacteria or prevent bacteria from reproducing. T All drugs can be considered medicines. F Over-the-counter OTC medicines are those that can be purchased without a doctor's authorization. T Which of these FDA regulations required that manufacturers disclose possible dangers and side effects of their medicines?
Kefauver-Harris Amendment Illegal Drug Street drug; grown, manufactured, processed, or distributed without FDA regulation or approval; no one of any age may lawfully manufacture, possess, buy or sell these. Why might a medical professional prescribe narcotics to a patient?
Narcotics include some of the most powerful pain relievers known. For patients suffering from extreme pain, either acute or chronic, narcotics may be the only drugs able to alleviate the pain. Why are marijuana users stereotypically portrayed as sluggish people with the munchies? Marijuana has many side effects, such as feelings of general relaxation, distorted time-sense, short-term memory loss, and increased appetite.
Together these manifest themselves as a general disregard for time schedules and the inability to remember to perform tasks or chores.
The increased appetite also results in marijuana users feeling the munchies. Which of the following statements BEST describes alcohol? Tachek Points User: There are no comments. Add an answer or comment. Log in or sign up first. Simplify the following expression: If 3 times a number minus 2 equals 13, what is the number?
Which of the following is not a force causing plate motion? One way to prevent hypothemia is to. Solve the following inequality: Recreational AAS use appears to be associated with a range of potentially prolonged psychiatric effects, including dependence syndromes, mood disorders , and progression to other forms of substance abuse, but the prevalence and severity of these various effects remains poorly understood.
Large-scale long-term studies of psychiatric effects on AAS users are not currently available. DSM-IV lists General diagnostic criteria for a personality disorder guideline that "The pattern must not be better accounted for as a manifestation of another mental disorder, or to the direct physiological effects of a substance e. As a result, AAS users may get misdiagnosed by a psychiatrist not told about their habit. Affective disorders have long been recognised as a complication of AAS use.
From the mids onward, the media reported " roid rage " as a side effect of AAS. A review determined that some, but not all, randomized controlled studies have found that AAS use correlates with hypomania and increased aggressiveness, but pointed out that attempts to determine whether AAS use triggers violent behavior have failed, primarily because of high rates of non-participation.
Compared with individuals that did not use steroids, young adult males that used AAS reported greater involvement in violent behaviors even after controlling for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use. The drug response was highly variable. The mechanism of these variable reactions could not be explained by demographic, psychological, laboratory, or physiological measures.
A study of two pairs of identical twins, in which one twin used AAS and the other did not, found that in both cases the steroid-using twin exhibited high levels of aggressiveness, hostility, anxiety, and paranoid ideation not found in the "control" twin.
The relationship between AAS use and depression is inconclusive. There have been anecdotal reports of depression and suicide in teenage steroid users,  but little systematic evidence. A review found that AAS may both relieve and cause depression, and that cessation or diminished use of AAS may also result in depression, but called for additional studies due to disparate data.
The pharmacodynamics of AAS are unlike peptide hormones. However, as fat-soluble hormones, AAS are membrane-permeable and influence the nucleus of cells by direct action. The pharmacodynamic action of AAS begin when the exogenous hormone penetrates the membrane of the target cell and binds to an androgen receptor AR located in the cytoplasm of that cell.
From there, the compound hormone-receptor diffuses into the nucleus, where it either alters the expression of genes  or activates processes that send signals to other parts of the cell. The effect of AAS on muscle mass is caused in at least two ways: It has been hypothesized that this reduction in muscle breakdown may occur through AAS inhibiting the action of other steroid hormones called glucocorticoids that promote the breakdown of muscles.
As their name suggests, AAS have two different, but overlapping, types of effects: Some examples of the anabolic effects of these hormones are increased protein synthesis from amino acids , increased appetite, increased bone remodeling and growth, and stimulation of bone marrow , which increases the production of red blood cells.
Through a number of mechanisms AAS stimulate the formation of muscle cells and hence cause an increase in the size of skeletal muscles , leading to increased strength. The androgenic effects of AAS are numerous. Depending on the length of use, the side effects of the steroid can be irreversible. Processes affected include pubertal growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality especially in fetal development. Some examples of virilizing effects are growth of the clitoris in females and the penis in male children the adult penis size does not change due to steroids [ medical citation needed ] , increased vocal cord size, increased libido , suppression of natural sex hormones , and impaired production of sperm.
Men may develop an enlargement of breast tissue, known as gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and a reduced sperm count. Compounds with a high ratio of androgenic to an anabolic effects are the drug of choice in androgen-replacement therapy e. This disassociation is less marked in humans, where all AAS have significant androgenic effects. A commonly used protocol for determining the androgenic: The VP weight is an indicator of the androgenic effect, while the LA weight is an indicator of the anabolic effect.
Two or more batches of rats are castrated and given no treatment and respectively some AAS of interest. Animal studies also found that fat mass was reduced, but most studies in humans failed to elucidate significant fat mass decrements.
The effects on lean body mass have been shown to be dose-dependent. Both muscle hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibers have been observed. The hydration of lean mass remains unaffected by AAS use, although small increments of blood volume cannot be ruled out. The upper region of the body thorax, neck, shoulders, and upper arm seems to be more susceptible for AAS than other body regions because of predominance of ARs in the upper body.
After drug withdrawal, the effects fade away slowly, but may persist for more than 6—12 weeks after cessation of AAS use. Overall, the exercise where the most significant improvements were observed is the bench press.
The measurement of the dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects among AAS is based largely on a simple although arguably unsophisticated and outdated model involving rat tissue bioassays. The intracellular metabolism theory explains how and why remarkable dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects can occur despite the fact that these effects are mediated through the same signaling receptor, and of course why dissociation is invariably incomplete.
An animal study found that two different kinds of androgen response elements could differentially respond to testosterone and DHT upon activation of the AR. Changes in endogenous testosterone levels may also contribute to differences in myotrophic—androgenic ratio between testosterone and synthetic AAS. Testosterone can be metabolized by aromatase into estradiol , and many other AAS can be metabolized into their corresponding estrogenic metabolites as well.
The major effect of estrogenicity is gynecomastia woman-like breasts. AAS are androstane or estrane steroids. As well as others such as 1-dehydrogenation e. The most commonly employed human physiological specimen for detecting AAS usage is urine, although both blood and hair have been investigated for this purpose. The AAS, whether of endogenous or exogenous origin, are subject to extensive hepatic biotransformation by a variety of enzymatic pathways.
The primary urinary metabolites may be detectable for up to 30 days after the last use, depending on the specific agent, dose and route of administration.
A number of the drugs have common metabolic pathways, and their excretion profiles may overlap those of the endogenous steroids, making interpretation of testing results a very significant challenge to the analytical chemist. Methods for detection of the substances or their excretion products in urine specimens usually involve gas chromatography—mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
The use of gonadal steroids pre-dates their identification and isolation. Medical use of testicle extract began in the late 19th century while its effects on strength were still being studied. In the s, it was already known that the testes contain a more powerful androgen than androstenone , and three groups of scientists, funded by competing pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland, raced to isolate it.
The chemical synthesis of testosterone was achieved in August that year, when Butenandt and G. Wettstein, announced a patent application in a paper "On the Artificial Preparation of the Testicular Hormone Testosterone Androstenoneol. Clinical trials on humans, involving either oral doses of methyltestosterone or injections of testosterone propionate , began as early as Kennedy was administered steroids both before and during his presidency. The development of muscle-building properties of testosterone was pursued in the s, in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Bloc countries such as East Germany, where steroid programs were used to enhance the performance of Olympic and other amateur weight lifters.
In response to the success of Russian weightlifters, the U. The new steroid was approved for use in the U. It was most commonly administered to burn victims and the elderly. The drug's off-label users were mostly bodybuilders and weight lifters.
Although Ziegler prescribed only small doses to athletes, he soon discovered that those having abused Dianabol suffered from enlarged prostates and atrophied testes. Three major ideas governed modifications of testosterone into a multitude of AAS: The legal status of AAS varies from country to country: Unlawful distribution or possession with intent to distribute AAS as a first offense is punished by up to ten years in prison.
Those guilty of buying or selling AAS in Canada can be imprisoned for up to 18 months. In Canada, researchers have concluded that steroid use among student athletes is extremely widespread. A study conducted in by the Canadian Centre for Drug-Free Sport found that nearly 83, Canadians between the ages of 11 and 18 use steroids. AAS are readily available without a prescription in some countries such as Mexico and Thailand. The history of the U. The same act also introduced more stringent controls with higher criminal penalties for offenses involving the illegal distribution of AAS and human growth hormone.
By the early s, after AAS were scheduled in the U. In the Controlled Substances Act, AAS are defined to be any drug or hormonal substance chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone other than estrogens , progestins , and corticosteroids that promote muscle growth. The act was amended by the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of , which added prohormones to the list of controlled substances , with effect from January 20, In the United Kingdom, AAS are classified as class C drugs for their illegal abuse potential, which puts them in the same class as benzodiazepines.
Part 1 drugs are subject to full import and export controls with possession being an offence without an appropriate prescription. There is no restriction on the possession when it is part of a medicinal product. Part 2 drugs require a Home Office licence for importation and export unless the substance is in the form of a medicinal product and is for self-administration by a person.
Many other countries have similar legislation prohibiting AAS in sports including Denmark,  France,  the Netherlands  and Sweden. United States federal law enforcement officials have expressed concern about AAS use by police officers.
It's not that we set out to target cops, but when we're in the middle of an active investigation into steroids, there have been quite a few cases that have led back to police officers," says Lawrence Payne, a spokesman for the United States Drug Enforcement Administration.
Following the murder-suicide of Chris Benoit in , the Oversight and Government Reform Committee investigated steroid usage in the wrestling industry. The documents stated that 75 wrestlers—roughly 40 percent—had tested positive for drug use since , most commonly for steroids.
AAS are frequently produced in pharmaceutical laboratories, but, in nations where stricter laws are present, they are also produced in small home-made underground laboratories, usually from raw substances imported from abroad.
As with most significant smuggling operations, organized crime is involved. In the late s, the worldwide trade in illicit AAS increased significantly, and authorities announced record captures on three continents.
In , Finnish authorities announced a record seizure of
Iamges: why do anabolic steroids differ from other illegal drugs
Injection is the most common method used by individuals administering AAS for non-medical purposes. Answers may include any example involving the child experiencing neglect, physical or emotional abuse, exposure to harmful substances, having emotional issues, or fearful reactions to parental behavior.
The liver , for example, can grow tumors and develop cancer. However, as fat-soluble hormones, AAS are membrane-permeable and influence the nucleus of cells by direct action. Teens who abuse steroids before the typical adolescent growth spurt risk staying short and never reaching their full adult height.
The relationship between AAS use and depression is inconclusive. But that's just on the outside. Part 2 drugs require a Home Office licence for importation and export unless the substance is in the form of a medicinal product and is for anaboolic by a person. Steroids can also mess with your head. Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete. The coefficient of 7xy is 7.
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